If you have ever had problems with sleep, chances are that you have heard of melatonin supplements. A hormone produced in the pineal gland, melatonin is an effective natural sleep aid. But its benefits are not just limited to midnight hours. In fact, melatonin has many important health benefits beyond sleep. It is a potent antioxidant and an anti-inflammatory hormone that can help improve brain health, heart health, fertility, gut health, eye health and much more! Let’s look at the benefits of melatonin and tips to increase melatonin levels naturally.
Melatonin is a hormone that is naturally derived from the amino acid tryptophan and the neurotransmitter known as serotonin. It is produced naturally in the pineal gland, but smaller quantities are also made by other organs like the stomach. Melatonin is critical for maintaining your body’s circadian rhythm, so that you feel alert and energized in the mornings, and sleepy in the evening. That’s why you have higher levels of melatonin in the blood at night, and these levels drastically go down in the morning.
But that’s not all melatonin really does. It’s also crucial for:
Melatonin levels decrease naturally with age, which is why it becomes harder to just drift off to sleep and get a good night’s rest post 60 years of age. Some studies have found that melatonin can also be used in the prevention and treatment of certain cancers, like breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer.
Melatonin increases the production of antioxidant enzymes in the body that protect against oxidative stress and support mitochondria function. Its potent action inhibits cellular atrophy and also protects against toxins that can disrupt mitochondrial function, leading to a plethora of neurodegenerative diseases (these are diseases caused by the progressive damage of nerve cells.)
Melatonin supports immune function. It gives your body the strength to fight against infections, diseases and symptoms of premature aging. It also has the ability to act as a stimulant in immunosuppressive diseases because of its potent anti-inflammatory properties.
Melatonin has the ability to shift biological rhythms. This makes it useful in the treatment of various circadian rhythm sleep disorders, such as advanced and delayed sleep phase disorders, jet lag and shift-work disorder.
Melatonin offers cardio-protective benefits. Its potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant abilities can help prevent heart attacks and strokes. Its free radical scavenger activity makes it a great natural alternative to treat and prevent cardiovascular diseases.
Melatonin also has anti-hypertensive effect, which keeps blood pressure under control. Since melatonin acts favorably on different levels of hypertension, including organ protection and with minimal side effects, it can be used as a supporting therapy in patients with hypertension.
Melatonin is also produced by the stomach because it is crucial for smooth digestion. For those dealing with digestive issues, melatonin can be a natural treatment for gut dysbiosis, ulcers, stress-induced stomach damage and inflammation of the stomach. It can be effective in treating colitis, IBS, irritable bowel syndrome, and even various cancers.
Melatonin is a surprising remedy for acid reflux. It helps in this digestive disorder by strengthening the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Relaxation of LES is a major reason for acid reflux. Also, studies have found lower levels of melatonin in patients of acid reflux.
If migraines are wreaking havoc on your life, melatonin supplements can help reduce the frequency and intensity of these painful, debilitating attacks. 3 mg of melatonin is effective for migraine prevention. It can also be useful in the treatment of cluster headaches.
Melatonin supports a healthy vision by preventing the death of cone cells that help in identifying color. It also improves the functioning of nerve cells crucial for vision and protects the cells that make eye pigment. It can also decrease elevated pressure in the eye from glaucoma and prevent the death of nerve cells in the eye.
Low night-time secretion of melatonin nearly doubles the risk of developing diabetes. In fact, melatonin improves insulin balance and protects insulin-producing cells in the pancreas from cell death. It can be used as a supporting therapy for treating prediabetes, diabetes type 2, Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and insulin resistance.
The antioxidant abilities of melatonin can help alleviate symptoms of Alzheimer′s and Parkinson′s disease. With age, decreased melatonin activity can increase the risk of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Melatonin therapy improves sleep and overall rest, which can bring relief from symptoms.
Aging can make the thyroid functioning rather sluggish, which is where melatonin’s protective abilities step in. For menopausal women, melatonin therapy can improve thyroid function and treat mood disorders.
Research has shown that low melatonin levels play a role in PMDD, a severe form of PMS. Melatonin therapy can keep you symptom-free through the luteal phase or the second part of your menstrual cycle. It can also be useful to treat perimenopause and menopause symptoms in older women. Scientific evidence sheds light on melatonin’s ability to treat infertility in both men and women as well.
Besides its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action, melatonin also has analgesic properties. This makes it useful for managing chronic painful conditions like fibromyalgia, headaches, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic back pain, and rheumatoid arthritis. Patients suffering from fibromyalgia – a condition that results in chronic widespread pain in muscles and connective tissues with no apparent cause, can benefit from melatonin supplements.
Short-term use of melatonin is generally considered safe. However, long term use, particularly when it’s not under the guidance of a medical expert, can result in side effects. For example, overdosing on melatonin can cause headaches, dizziness and daytime grogginess, which can all affect work productivity. Melatonin also needs to be taken with care and only under medical guidance if you have high blood pressure, diabetes or taking blood thinning medications.
Currently, there is no known safe dosage for melatonin and your dosage will depend on your particular symptoms. Those with sleep disturbances can fare well with a dose as low as 0.25mg or 0.5mg. Most doctors will prescribe anything from 2mg to 3mg for more serious health problems, which are safe when taken under directions from an expert.
In the end, it’s always better to allow your body to produce more melatonin naturally.
While our body produces melatonin naturally, poor lifestyle habits can result in decreased melatonin activity. Let’s look at natural ways to increase melatonin levels.
The Therapeutic Potential of Melatonin: A Review of the Science – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1395802/
Chemical and Physical Properties and Potential Mechanisms: Melatonin as a Broad Spectrum Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenger – http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ben/ctmc/2002/00000002/00000002/art00006
Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3645767/
Melatonin agonists and insomnia – http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1586/ern.10.1
Melatonin in cardiovascular disease – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22916801
Peripheral and Central Effects of Melatonin on Blood Pressure Regulation – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4227197/
EFFECTS OF MELATONIN AND TRYPTOPHAN ON HEALING OF GASTRIC AND DUODENAL ULCERS WITH HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION IN HUMANS – http://www.jpp.krakow.pl/journal/archive/10_11/pdf/521_10_11_article.pdf
Potential therapeutic use of melatonin in migraine and other headache disorders – http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1517/135437126.96.36.1997
Melatonin counteracts ischemia-induced apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9804146
Activation of Melatonin Signaling Promotes β-Cell Survival and Function – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25695910
Pineal and cortical melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2 are decreased in Alzheimer’s disease – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17213040
Effects of melatonin in perimenopausal and menopausal women: a randomized and placebo controlled study – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11226744
Pilot Investigation of the Circadian Plasma Melatonin Rhythm across the Menstrual Cycle in a Small Group of Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder – http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0051929
Melatonin in Chronic Pain Syndromes – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4912970/